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2014.09.26 FRI

Direct Connect経由なFusion-ioとRDSはどっちが速いのかを繋いで、ベンチマークしてみた。

廣瀬 一海

WRITTEN BY廣瀬 一海

こんにちわ、デプロイ王子こと廣瀬 一海(@kazumihirose)です。

背景

RDBMSにおけるOLTP処理において、Fusion-io社のioDrive2はゲームなどを中心に非常に高い性能を示しており、各RDBMSのストレージとして採用されています。この事から、ioDrive2に匹敵する性能をクラウド求にられていくことが予想されます。

目的

本検証はハイブリッドクラウド環境において、ioDrive2搭載サーバの実運用性を検証することを目的としています。
EquinixにioDrive2を搭載した物理サーバを設置し、AmazonVPC内から、Amazon Direct Connectを経由して各種ベンチマークを行い、その性能と実運用性を検証を行います。

検証環境について

検証環境は以下の図の通りです。
ベンチマーク検証 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: 構成図
Amazon VPCの1つのサブネットに、ベンチマーク用インスタンスとAmazon RDSのインスタンスを起動しています。また、Equinixデータセンターには物理サーバが設置されており、このサーバまでは本VPC及びDirectConnectを介して、互いに疎通しています。
各検証機のスペックは以下の表を参考にしてください。

Benchmark クライアント インスタンス

Name Value
Instance Type r3.8xlarge
CPU 32 vCPU
Memory 244GB
Storage 320GB x 2
Network 10GBps

Amazon RDS ターゲット インスタンス

Name Value
DB Version MySQL 5.6.17
Instance Type db.r3.8xlarge
Storage 3072GB
IOPS 25000
Replication Multi AZ

Equinix FusionIO搭載 物理サーバー

Name Value
DB Version MySQL 5.6.17
CPU Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2697 v2 @ 2.70GHz () cache 30720KB family 6 model 62 stepping 4 48core
Memory 32GB
Storage OS /dev/sda 146.7GB ext4
Other Storage ioDrive2 /dev/fioa1 365.000 GB XFS sector format 4Kbyte

TPC-Cについて

TPC-CはTPCによって策定されたベンチマーク仕様の一つで、過去のTPC-A/TPC-Bの改良ベンチマークにあたります。このベンチマークでは卸売業の業務を参考モデルとしており、注文・支払いなどのトランザクションを実行し、システムの性能を測定します。
データはwarehouseを500をデーターセットとしてあらかじめ準備しました。
参考指標としてwarehouseは数値が多いほどスケールファクターとして扱われます、またクライアントからコネクションにより並列度が決定されます。
ioDrive2および、RDSのインスタンスに対し、以下の組み合わせのベンチマークを行いました。

ベンチマーク組み合わせ

ioDrive および RDSそれぞれ以下の組み合わせで行いました。

warehouse connection
100 50
100 100
100 200
250 50
250 100
250 200
500 50
500 100
500 200

ベンチマーク結果

低コネクションレートでは、時折RDSがioDriveがピークで超えることがありますが、概ねioDrive2の方がトランザクション性能面ではRDSよりも良いという結果が出ています。
ioDrive2では意図的にクエリキャッシュを切っています。よって、RDSにクエリキャッシュが搭載されている影響である可能性が高いと推察しています

w100-c50

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: w100-c50

w100-c100

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: w100-c100

w100-c200

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: w100-c200

w250-c50

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: w250-c50

w250-c100

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: w250-c100

w250-c200

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: w250-c200

w500-c50

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: w500-c50

w500-c100

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: w500-c100

w500-c200

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: w500-c200

コネクション時の通信帯域

ベンチマーク時に計測したDX端点のルーターの帯域グラフを以下に掲載します。

C50時

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: 通信帯域 C50時

C100時

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: 通信帯域 C100時

C250時

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: 通信帯域 C250時

MySQLサーバーのパラメーターの差異に関して

RDSとioDrive2におけるパラメータの差異のみを記載します。

(※表が大きいため、文字を小さくして全体を表示しています。詳細は、元記事をご参考いただければ幸いです。)

Variable_name RDS value ioDrive2 value
basedir /rdsdbbin/mysql/ /usr
character_set_database latin1 utf8
character_set_server latin1 utf8
character_sets_dir /rdsdbbin/mysql-5.6.17.R1/share/charsets/ /usr/share/mysql/charsets/
collation_database latin1_swedish_ci utf8_general_ci
collation_server latin1_swedish_ci utf8_general_ci
datadir /rdsdbdata/db/ /var/lib/mysql/
expire_logs_days 0 14
explicit_defaults_for_timestamp ON OFF
general_log_file /rdsdbdata/log/general/mysql-general.log /var/lib/mysql/localhost.log
have_openssl YES DISABLED
have_ssl YES DISABLED
hostname ip-172-23-0-137 localhost.localdomain
innodb_buffer_pool_size 193115193344 26843545600
innodb_data_file_path ibdata1:12M:autoextend ibdata1:10M:autoextend
innodb_data_home_dir /rdsdbdata/db/innodb /var/lib/mysql
innodb_file_format Antelope Barracuda
innodb_large_prefix OFF ON
innodb_lock_wait_timeout 50 120
innodb_log_buffer_size 8388608 16777216
innodb_log_group_home_dir /rdsdbdata/log/innodb ./
innodb_open_files 2000 4096
innodb_print_all_deadlocks OFF ON
innodb_read_io_threads 4 16
innodb_strict_mode OFF ON
innodb_write_io_threads 4 16
key_buffer_size 16777216 33554432
lc_messages_dir /rdsdbbin/mysql-5.6.17.R1/share/ /usr/share/mysql/
log_bin OFF ON
log_bin_basename /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin
log_bin_index /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.index
log_error /rdsdbdata/log/error/mysql-error.log /var/lib/mysql/mysql-error.log
log_output TABLE FILE
log_queries_not_using_indexes OFF ON
log_slave_updates ON OFF
master_info_repository TABLE FILE
max_allowed_packet 4194304 16777216
max_binlog_size 134217728 1073741824
max_connect_errors 100 1000000
max_heap_table_size 16777216 67108864
myisam_recover_options OFF BACKUP,FORCE
open_files_limit 65535 102315
performance_schema OFF ON
performance_schema_accounts_size -1 100
performance_schema_digests_size -1 10000
performance_schema_events_stages_history_long_size -1 10000
performance_schema_events_stages_history_size -1 10
performance_schema_events_statements_history_long_size -1 10000
performance_schema_events_statements_history_size -1 10
performance_schema_events_waits_history_long_size -1 10000
performance_schema_events_waits_history_size -1 10
performance_schema_hosts_size -1 100
performance_schema_max_cond_instances -1 90144
performance_schema_max_file_instances -1 157408
performance_schema_max_mutex_instances -1 164738
performance_schema_max_rwlock_instances -1 65902
performance_schema_max_socket_instances -1 40946
performance_schema_max_table_handles -1 8192
performance_schema_max_table_instances -1 12500
performance_schema_max_thread_instances -1 41026
performance_schema_session_connect_attrs_size -1 512
performance_schema_users_size -1 100
pid_file /rdsdbdata/log/mysql-3306.pid /var/lib/mysql/mysql.pid
plugin_dir /rdsdbbin/mysql-5.6.17.R1/lib/plugin/ /usr/lib64/mysql/plugin/
pseudo_thread_id 1680 3193
query_cache_size 1048576 0
read_buffer_size 262144 131072
read_rnd_buffer_size 524288 262144
relay_log /rdsdbdata/log/relaylog/relaylog
relay_log_basename /rdsdbdata/log/relaylog/relaylog
relay_log_index /rdsdbdata/log/relaylog/relaylog.index
relay_log_info_repository TABLE FILE
relay_log_recovery ON OFF
secure_file_priv /tmp/
server_id 1875561690 1
server_uuid 0ba6f778-0118-11e4-8f53-066a99301f11 3996a66b-06ae-11e4-b3c1-a0d3c104d7d4
slave_load_tmpdir /rdsdbdata/tmp /tmp
slow_query_log OFF ON
slow_query_log_file /rdsdbdata/log/slowquery/mysql-slowquery.log /var/lib/mysql/mysql-slow.log
socket /tmp/mysql.sock /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
ssl_ca /rdsdbdata/rds-metadata/ca-cert.pem
ssl_cert /rdsdbdata/rds-metadata/server-cert.pem
ssl_cipher EXP1024-RC4-SHA:…
ssl_key /rdsdbdata/rds-metadata/server-key.pem
system_time_zone UTC JST
table_definition_cache 1400 4096
table_open_cache 2000 4096
table_open_cache_instances 16 1
thread_cache_size 100 256
time_zone UTC SYSTEM
timestamp 1404719791.828739 1405077097.750732
tmp_table_size 16777216 67108864
tmpdir /rdsdbdata/tmp /tmp
version 5.6.17 5.6.17-log

資料:セッティングパラメーター

すべてのセッティングにかかわるパラメーターを以下に記載します。

(※表が大きいため、文字を小さくして全体を表示しています。詳細は、元記事をご参考いただければ幸いです。)

設定 MySQLDefault AmazonRDS FusionIO
auto_increment_increment 1 1 1
auto_increment_offset 1 1 1
autocommit ON ON ON
automatic_sp_privileges ON ON ON
back_log 80 900 900
basedir /usr /rdsdbbin/mysql/ /usr
big_tables OFF OFF OFF
bind_address * * *
binlog_cache_size 32768 32768 32768
binlog_checksum CRC32 CRC32 CRC32
binlog_direct_non_transactional_updates OFF OFF OFF
binlog_format STATEMENT STATEMENT STATEMENT
binlog_max_flush_queue_time 0 0 0
binlog_order_commits ON ON ON
binlog_row_image FULL FULL FULL
binlog_rows_query_log_events OFF OFF OFF
binlog_stmt_cache_size 32768 32768 32768
block_encryption_mode aes-128-ecb aes-128-ecb aes-128-ecb
bulk_insert_buffer_size 8388608 8388608 8388608
character_set_client utf8 utf8 utf8
character_set_connection utf8 utf8 utf8
character_set_database latin1 latin1 utf8
character_set_filesystem binary binary binary
character_set_results utf8 utf8 utf8
character_set_server latin1 latin1 utf8
character_set_system utf8 utf8 utf8
character_sets_dir /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ /rdsdbbin/mysql-5.6.17.R1/share/charsets/ /usr/share/mysql/charsets/
collation_connection utf8_general_ci utf8_general_ci utf8_general_ci
collation_database latin1_swedish_ci latin1_swedish_ci utf8_general_ci
collation_server latin1_swedish_ci latin1_swedish_ci utf8_general_ci
completion_type NO_CHAIN NO_CHAIN NO_CHAIN
concurrent_insert AUTO AUTO AUTO
connect_timeout 10 10 10
core_file OFF OFF OFF
datadir /var/lib/mysql/ /rdsdbdata/db/ /var/lib/mysql/
date_format %Y-%m-%d %Y-%m-%d %Y-%m-%d
datetime_format %Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s %Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s %Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%s
default_storage_engine InnoDB InnoDB InnoDB
default_tmp_storage_engine InnoDB InnoDB InnoDB
default_week_format 0 0 0
delay_key_write ON ON ON
delayed_insert_limit 100 100 100
delayed_insert_timeout 300 300 300
delayed_queue_size 1000 1000 1000
disconnect_on_expired_password ON ON ON
div_precision_increment 4 4 4
end_markers_in_json OFF OFF OFF
enforce_gtid_consistency OFF OFF OFF
eq_range_index_dive_limit 10 10 10
error_count 0 0 0
event_scheduler OFF OFF OFF
expire_logs_days 0 0 14
explicit_defaults_for_timestamp OFF ON OFF
external_user
flush OFF OFF OFF
flush_time 0 0 0
foreign_key_checks ON ON ON
ft_boolean_syntax + … + … + … |
ft_max_word_len 84 84 84
ft_min_word_len 4 4 4
ft_query_expansion_limit 20 20 20
ft_stopword_file (built-in) (built-in) (built-in)
general_log OFF OFF OFF
general_log_file /var/lib/mysql/localhost.log /rdsdbdata/log/general/mysql-general.log /var/lib/mysql/localhost.log
group_concat_max_len 1024 1024 1024
gtid_executed
gtid_mode OFF OFF OFF
gtid_next AUTOMATIC AUTOMATIC AUTOMATIC
gtid_owned
gtid_purged
have_compress YES YES YES
have_crypt YES YES YES
have_dynamic_loading YES YES YES
have_geometry YES YES YES
have_openssl DISABLED YES DISABLED
have_profiling YES YES YES
have_query_cache YES YES YES
have_rtree_keys YES YES YES
have_ssl DISABLED YES DISABLED
have_symlink YES YES YES
host_cache_size 279 1626 1626
hostname localhost.localdomain ip-172-23-0-137 localhost.localdomain
identity 0 0 0
ignore_builtin_innodb OFF OFF OFF
ignore_db_dirs
init_connect
init_file
init_slave
innodb_adaptive_flushing ON ON ON
innodb_adaptive_flushing_lwm 10 10 10
innodb_adaptive_hash_index ON ON ON
innodb_adaptive_max_sleep_delay 150000 150000 150000
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size 8388608 8388608 8388608
innodb_api_bk_commit_interval 5 5 5
innodb_api_disable_rowlock OFF OFF OFF
innodb_api_enable_binlog OFF OFF OFF
innodb_api_enable_mdl OFF OFF OFF
innodb_api_trx_level 0 0 0
innodb_autoextend_increment 64 64 64
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode 1 1 1
innodb_buffer_pool_dump_at_shutdown OFF OFF OFF
innodb_buffer_pool_dump_now OFF OFF OFF
innodb_buffer_pool_filename ib_buffer_pool ib_buffer_pool ib_buffer_pool
innodb_buffer_pool_instances 8 8 8
innodb_buffer_pool_load_abort OFF OFF OFF
innodb_buffer_pool_load_at_startup OFF OFF OFF
innodb_buffer_pool_load_now OFF OFF OFF
innodb_buffer_pool_size 134217728 193115193344 26843545600
innodb_change_buffer_max_size 25 25 25
innodb_change_buffering all all all
innodb_checksum_algorithm innodb innodb innodb
innodb_checksums ON ON ON
innodb_cmp_per_index_enabled OFF OFF OFF
innodb_commit_concurrency 0 0 0
innodb_compression_failure_threshold_pct 5 5 5
innodb_compression_level 6 6 6
innodb_compression_pad_pct_max 50 50 50
innodb_concurrency_tickets 5000 5000 5000
innodb_data_file_path ibdata1:12M:autoextend ibdata1:12M:autoextend ibdata1:10M:autoextend
innodb_data_home_dir /rdsdbdata/db/innodb /var/lib/mysql
innodb_disable_sort_file_cache OFF OFF OFF
innodb_doublewrite ON ON ON
innodb_fast_shutdown 1 1 1
innodb_file_format Antelope Antelope Barracuda
innodb_file_format_check ON ON ON
innodb_file_format_max Antelope Antelope Antelope
innodb_file_per_table ON ON ON
innodb_flush_log_at_timeout 1 1 1
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit 1 1 1
innodb_flush_method O_DIRECT O_DIRECT
innodb_flush_neighbors 1 1 1
innodb_flushing_avg_loops 30 30 30
innodb_force_load_corrupted OFF OFF OFF
innodb_force_recovery 0 0 0
innodb_ft_aux_table
innodb_ft_cache_size 8000000 8000000 8000000
innodb_ft_enable_diag_print OFF OFF OFF
innodb_ft_enable_stopword ON ON ON
innodb_ft_max_token_size 84 84 84
innodb_ft_min_token_size 3 3 3
innodb_ft_num_word_optimize 2000 2000 2000
innodb_ft_result_cache_limit 2000000000 2000000000 2000000000
innodb_ft_server_stopword_table
innodb_ft_sort_pll_degree 2 2 2
innodb_ft_total_cache_size 640000000 640000000 640000000
innodb_ft_user_stopword_table
innodb_io_capacity 200 200 200
innodb_io_capacity_max 2000 2000 2000
innodb_large_prefix OFF OFF ON
innodb_lock_wait_timeout 50 50 120
innodb_locks_unsafe_for_binlog OFF OFF OFF
innodb_log_buffer_size 8388608 8388608 16777216
innodb_log_compressed_pages ON ON ON
innodb_log_file_size 50331648 134217728 134217728
innodb_log_files_in_group 2 2 2
innodb_log_group_home_dir ./ /rdsdbdata/log/innodb ./
innodb_lru_scan_depth 1024 1024 1024
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct 75 75 75
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct_lwm 0 0 0
innodb_max_purge_lag 0 0 0
innodb_max_purge_lag_delay 0 0 0
innodb_mirrored_log_groups 1 1 1
innodb_monitor_disable
innodb_monitor_enable
innodb_monitor_reset
innodb_monitor_reset_all
innodb_old_blocks_pct 37 37 37
innodb_old_blocks_time 1000 1000 1000
innodb_online_alter_log_max_size 134217728 134217728 134217728
innodb_open_files 2000 2000 4096
innodb_optimize_fulltext_only OFF OFF OFF
innodb_page_size 16384 16384 16384
innodb_print_all_deadlocks OFF OFF ON
innodb_purge_batch_size 300 300 300
innodb_purge_threads 1 1 1
innodb_random_read_ahead OFF OFF OFF
innodb_read_ahead_threshold 56 56 56
innodb_read_io_threads 4 4 16
innodb_read_only OFF OFF OFF
innodb_replication_delay 0 0 0
innodb_rollback_on_timeout OFF OFF OFF
innodb_rollback_segments 128 128 128
innodb_sort_buffer_size 1048576 1048576 1048576
innodb_spin_wait_delay 6 6 6
innodb_stats_auto_recalc ON ON ON
innodb_stats_method nulls_equal nulls_equal nulls_equal
innodb_stats_on_metadata OFF OFF OFF
innodb_stats_persistent ON ON ON
innodb_stats_persistent_sample_pages 20 20 20
innodb_stats_sample_pages 8 8 8
innodb_stats_transient_sample_pages 8 8 8
innodb_status_output OFF OFF OFF
innodb_status_output_locks OFF OFF OFF
innodb_strict_mode OFF OFF ON
innodb_support_xa ON ON ON
innodb_sync_array_size 1 1 1
innodb_sync_spin_loops 30 30 30
innodb_table_locks ON ON ON
innodb_thread_concurrency 0 0 0
innodb_thread_sleep_delay 10000 10000 10000
innodb_undo_directory . . .
innodb_undo_logs 128 128 128
innodb_undo_tablespaces 0 0 0
innodb_use_native_aio ON ON ON
innodb_use_sys_malloc ON ON ON
innodb_version 5.6.17 5.6.17 5.6.17
innodb_write_io_threads 4 4 16
insert_id 0 0 0
interactive_timeout 28800 28800 28800
join_buffer_size 262144 262144 262144
keep_files_on_create OFF OFF OFF
key_buffer_size 8388608 16777216 33554432
key_cache_age_threshold 300 300 300
key_cache_block_size 1024 1024 1024
key_cache_division_limit 100 100 100
large_files_support ON ON ON
large_page_size 0 0 0
large_pages OFF OFF OFF
last_insert_id 0 0 0
lc_messages en_US en_US en_US
lc_messages_dir /usr/share/mysql/ /rdsdbbin/mysql-5.6.17.R1/share/ /usr/share/mysql/
lc_time_names en_US en_US en_US
license GPL GPL GPL
local_infile ON ON ON
lock_wait_timeout 31536000 31536000 31536000
locked_in_memory OFF OFF OFF
log_bin OFF OFF ON
log_bin_basename /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin
log_bin_index /var/lib/mysql/mysql-bin.index
log_bin_trust_function_creators OFF OFF OFF
log_bin_use_v1_row_events OFF OFF OFF
log_error /var/lib/mysql/localhost.localdomain.err /rdsdbdata/log/error/mysql-error.log /var/lib/mysql/mysql-error.log
log_output FILE TABLE FILE
log_queries_not_using_indexes OFF OFF ON
log_slave_updates OFF ON OFF
log_slow_admin_statements OFF OFF OFF
log_slow_slave_statements OFF OFF OFF
log_throttle_queries_not_using_indexes 0 0 0
log_warnings 1 1 1
long_query_time 10.000000 10.000000 10.000000
low_priority_updates OFF OFF OFF
lower_case_file_system OFF OFF OFF
lower_case_table_names 0 0 0
master_info_repository FILE TABLE FILE
master_verify_checksum OFF OFF OFF
max_allowed_packet 4194304 4194304 16777216
max_binlog_cache_size 18446744073709547520 18446744073709547520 18446744073709547520
max_binlog_size 1073741824 134217728 1073741824
max_binlog_stmt_cache_size 18446744073709547520 18446744073709547520 18446744073709547520
max_connect_errors 100 100 1000000
max_connections 151 20463 20463
max_delayed_threads 20 20 20
max_error_count 64 64 64
max_heap_table_size 16777216 16777216 67108864
max_insert_delayed_threads 20 20 20
max_join_size 18446744073709551615 18446744073709551615 18446744073709551615
max_length_for_sort_data 1024 1024 1024
max_prepared_stmt_count 16382 16382 16382
max_relay_log_size 0 0 0
max_seeks_for_key 18446744073709551615 18446744073709551615 18446744073709551615
max_sort_length 1024 1024 1024
max_sp_recursion_depth 0 0 0
max_tmp_tables 32 32 32
max_user_connections 0 0 0
max_write_lock_count 18446744073709551615 18446744073709551615 18446744073709551615
metadata_locks_cache_size 1024 1024 1024
metadata_locks_hash_instances 8 8 8
min_examined_row_limit 0 0 0
multi_range_count 256 256 256
myisam_data_pointer_size 6 6 6
myisam_max_sort_file_size 9223372036853727232 9223372036853727232 9223372036853727232
myisam_mmap_size 18446744073709551615 18446744073709551615 18446744073709551615
myisam_recover_options OFF OFF “BACKUP,FORCE”
myisam_repair_threads 1 1 1
myisam_sort_buffer_size 8388608 8388608 8388608
myisam_stats_method nulls_unequal nulls_unequal nulls_unequal
myisam_use_mmap OFF OFF OFF
net_buffer_length 16384 16384 16384
net_read_timeout 30 30 30
net_retry_count 10 10 10
net_write_timeout 60 60 60
new OFF OFF OFF
old OFF OFF OFF
old_alter_table OFF OFF OFF
old_passwords 0 0 0
open_files_limit 5000 65535 102315
optimizer_prune_level 1 1 1
optimizer_search_depth 62 62 62
optimizer_switch “index_merge=on,index_merge_union=on…” “index_merge=on,index_merge_union=on…” “index_merge=on,index_merge_union=on…”
optimizer_trace “enabled=off,one_line=off” “enabled=off,one_line=off” “enabled=off,one_line=off”
optimizer_trace_features greedy_search=on… greedy_search=on… greedy_search=on…
optimizer_trace_limit 1 1 1
optimizer_trace_max_mem_size 16384 16384 16384
optimizer_trace_offset -1 -1 -1
performance_schema ON OFF ON
performance_schema_accounts_size 100 -1 100
performance_schema_digests_size 10000 -1 10000
performance_schema_events_stages_history_long_size 10000 -1 10000
performance_schema_events_stages_history_size 10 -1 10
performance_schema_events_statements_history_long_size 10000 -1 10000
performance_schema_events_statements_history_size 10 -1 10
performance_schema_events_waits_history_long_size 10000 -1 10000
performance_schema_events_waits_history_size 10 -1 10
performance_schema_hosts_size 100 -1 100
performance_schema_max_cond_classes 80 80 80
performance_schema_max_cond_instances 3504 -1 90144
performance_schema_max_file_classes 50 50 50
performance_schema_max_file_handles 32768 32768 32768
performance_schema_max_file_instances 7693 -1 157408
performance_schema_max_mutex_classes 200 200 200
performance_schema_max_mutex_instances 15906 -1 164738
performance_schema_max_rwlock_classes 40 40 40
performance_schema_max_rwlock_instances 9102 -1 65902
performance_schema_max_socket_classes 10 10 10
performance_schema_max_socket_instances 322 -1 40946
performance_schema_max_stage_classes 150 150 150
performance_schema_max_statement_classes 168 168 168
performance_schema_max_table_handles 4000 -1 8192
performance_schema_max_table_instances 12500 -1 12500
performance_schema_max_thread_classes 50 50 50
performance_schema_max_thread_instances 402 -1 41026
performance_schema_session_connect_attrs_size 512 -1 512
performance_schema_setup_actors_size 100 100 100
performance_schema_setup_objects_size 100 100 100
performance_schema_users_size 100 -1 100
pid_file /var/lib/mysql/localhost.localdomain.pid /rdsdbdata/log/mysql-3306.pid /var/lib/mysql/mysql.pid
plugin_dir /usr/lib64/mysql/plugin/ /rdsdbbin/mysql-5.6.17.R1/lib/plugin/ /usr/lib64/mysql/plugin/
port 3306 3306 3306
preload_buffer_size 32768 32768 32768
profiling OFF OFF OFF
profiling_history_size 15 15 15
protocol_version 10 10 10
proxy_user
pseudo_slave_mode OFF OFF OFF
pseudo_thread_id 10 1680 3193
query_alloc_block_size 8192 8192 8192
query_cache_limit 1048576 1048576 1048576
query_cache_min_res_unit 4096 4096 4096
query_cache_size 1048576 1048576 0
query_cache_type OFF OFF OFF
query_cache_wlock_invalidate OFF OFF OFF
query_prealloc_size 8192 8192 8192
rand_seed1 0 0 0
rand_seed2 0 0 0
range_alloc_block_size 4096 4096 4096
read_buffer_size 131072 262144 131072
read_only OFF OFF OFF
read_rnd_buffer_size 262144 524288 262144
relay_log /rdsdbdata/log/relaylog/relaylog
relay_log_basename /rdsdbdata/log/relaylog/relaylog
relay_log_index /rdsdbdata/log/relaylog/relaylog.index
relay_log_info_file relay-log.info relay-log.info relay-log.info
relay_log_info_repository FILE TABLE FILE
relay_log_purge ON ON ON
relay_log_recovery OFF ON OFF
relay_log_space_limit 0 0 0
report_host
report_password
report_port 3306 3306 3306
report_user
rpl_stop_slave_timeout 31536000 31536000 31536000
secure_auth ON ON ON
secure_file_priv /tmp/
server_id 0 1875561690 1
server_id_bits 32 32 32
server_uuid 88003e51-0699-11e4-b33a-a0d3c104d7d4 0ba6f778-0118-11e4-8f53-066a99301f11 3996a66b-06ae-11e4-b3c1-a0d3c104d7d4
skip_external_locking ON ON ON
skip_name_resolve OFF OFF OFF
skip_networking OFF OFF OFF
skip_show_database OFF OFF OFF
slave_allow_batching OFF OFF OFF
slave_checkpoint_group 512 512 512
slave_checkpoint_period 300 300 300
slave_compressed_protocol OFF OFF OFF
slave_exec_mode STRICT STRICT STRICT
slave_load_tmpdir /tmp /rdsdbdata/tmp /tmp
slave_max_allowed_packet 1073741824 1073741824 1073741824
slave_net_timeout 3600 3600 3600
slave_parallel_workers 0 0 0
slave_pending_jobs_size_max 16777216 16777216 16777216
slave_rows_search_algorithms “TABLE_SCAN,INDEX_SCAN” “TABLE_SCAN,INDEX_SCAN” “TABLE_SCAN,INDEX_SCAN”
slave_skip_errors OFF OFF OFF
slave_sql_verify_checksum ON ON ON
slave_transaction_retries 10 10 10
slave_type_conversions
slow_launch_time 2 2 2
slow_query_log OFF OFF ON
slow_query_log_file /var/lib/mysql/localhost-slow.log /rdsdbdata/log/slowquery/mysql-slowquery.log /var/lib/mysql/mysql-slow.log
socket /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock /tmp/mysql.sock /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
sort_buffer_size 262144 262144 262144
sql_auto_is_null OFF OFF OFF
sql_big_selects ON ON ON
sql_buffer_result OFF OFF OFF
sql_log_bin ON ON ON
sql_log_off OFF OFF OFF
sql_mode “STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION” NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION
sql_notes ON ON ON
sql_quote_show_create ON ON ON
sql_safe_updates OFF OFF OFF
sql_select_limit 18446744073709551615 18446744073709551615 18446744073709551615
sql_slave_skip_counter 0 0 0
sql_warnings OFF OFF OFF
ssl_ca /rdsdbdata/rds-metadata/ca-cert.pem
ssl_capath
ssl_cert /rdsdbdata/rds-metadata/server-cert.pem
ssl_cipher EXP1024-RC4-SHA…
ssl_crl
ssl_crlpath
ssl_key /rdsdbdata/rds-metadata/server-key.pem
storage_engine InnoDB InnoDB InnoDB
stored_program_cache 256 256 256
sync_binlog 0 1 1
sync_frm ON ON ON
sync_master_info 10000 10000 10000
sync_relay_log 10000 10000 10000
sync_relay_log_info 10000 10000 10000
system_time_zone JST UTC JST
table_definition_cache 1400 1400 4096
table_open_cache 2000 2000 4096
table_open_cache_instances 1 16 1
thread_cache_size 9 100 256
thread_concurrency 10 10 10
thread_handling one-thread-per-connection one-thread-per-connection one-thread-per-connection
thread_stack 262144 262144 262144
time_format %H:%i:%s %H:%i:%s %H:%i:%s
time_zone SYSTEM UTC SYSTEM
timed_mutexes OFF OFF OFF
timestamp 1404826542.811469 1404719791.828739 1405077097.750732
tmp_table_size 16777216 16777216 67108864
tmpdir /tmp /rdsdbdata/tmp /tmp
transaction_alloc_block_size 8192 8192 8192
transaction_allow_batching OFF OFF OFF
transaction_prealloc_size 4096 4096 4096
tx_isolation REPEATABLE-READ REPEATABLE-READ REPEATABLE-READ
tx_read_only OFF OFF OFF
unique_checks ON ON ON
updatable_views_with_limit YES YES YES
version 5.6.17 5.6.17 5.6.17-log
version_comment MySQL Community Server (GPL) MySQL Community Server (GPL) MySQL Community Server (GPL)
version_compile_machine x86_64 x86_64 x86_64
version_compile_os Linux Linux Linux
wait_timeout 28800 28800 28800
warning_count 0 0 0

sysbench-lua 0.5について

sysbenchは、mysqlやmariadb/perconaなどでよく使われているDBベンチマークツールです。
本来はCPUやメモリの性能を測定する目的のものですが、機能拡張によりRDBMSのベンチマークも可能になっています。
今回は8個のテーブル、40000000行に対し、スレッド数を1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256と可変させながらioDrive2および、RDSのインスタンスに対しベンチマークを行いました。
なお、計測したクエリは以下の通りです。

oltp.lua

pathtest = string.match(test, “(.*/)”) or “”

dofile(pathtest .. “common.lua”)

function thread_init(thread_id)
 set_vars()

if (db_driver == “mysql” and mysql_table_engine == “myisam”) then
 begin_query = “LOCK TABLES sbtest WRITE”
commit_query = “UNLOCK TABLES”
else
 begin_query = “BEGIN”
commit_query = “COMMIT”
end

end

function event(thread_id)
 local rs
 local i
 local table_name
 local range_start
 local c_val
 local pad_val
 local query

table_name = “sbtest”.. sb_rand_uniform(1, oltp_tables_count)
 db_query(begin_query)

for i=1, oltp_point_selects do
 rs = db_query(“SELECT c FROM “.. table_name ..” WHERE id=” .. sb_rand(1, oltp_table_size))
 end

for i=1, oltp_simple_ranges do
 range_start = sb_rand(1, oltp_table_size)
 rs = db_query(“SELECT c FROM “.. table_name ..” WHERE id BETWEEN ” .. range_start .. ” AND ” .. range_start .. “+” .. oltp_range_size – 1)
 end

for i=1, oltp_sum_ranges do
 range_start = sb_rand(1, oltp_table_size)
 rs = db_query(“SELECT SUM(K) FROM “.. table_name ..” WHERE id BETWEEN ” .. range_start .. ” AND ” .. range_start .. “+” .. oltp_range_size – 1)
 end

for i=1, oltp_order_ranges do
 range_start = sb_rand(1, oltp_table_size)
 rs = db_query(“SELECT c FROM “.. table_name ..” WHERE id BETWEEN ” .. range_start .. ” AND ” .. range_start .. “+” .. oltp_range_size – 1 .. ” ORDER BY c”)
end

for i=1, oltp_distinct_ranges do
 range_start = sb_rand(1, oltp_table_size)
 rs = db_query(“SELECT DISTINCT c FROM “.. table_name ..” WHERE id BETWEEN ” .. range_start .. ” AND ” .. range_start .. “+” .. oltp_range_size – 1 .. ” ORDER BY c”)
end

if not oltp_read_only then

for i=1, oltp_index_updates do
 rs = db_query(“UPDATE ” .. table_name .. ” SET k=k+1 WHERE id=” .. sb_rand(1, oltp_table_size))
 end

for i=1, oltp_non_index_updates do
 c_val = sb_rand_str(“###########-###########-###########-###########-###########-###########-###########-###########-###########-###########”)
query = “UPDATE ” .. table_name .. ” SET c='” .. c_val .. “‘ WHERE id=” .. sb_rand(1, oltp_table_size)
 rs = db_query(query)
 if rs then
 print(query)
 end
 end

i = sb_rand(1, oltp_table_size)

rs = db_query(“DELETE FROM ” .. table_name .. ” WHERE id=” .. i)

c_val = sb_rand_str([[
 ###########-###########-###########-###########-###########-###########-###########-###########-###########-###########]])
 pad_val = sb_rand_str([[
 ###########-###########-###########-###########-###########]])

rs = db_query(“INSERT INTO ” .. table_name .. ” (id, k, c, pad) VALUES ” .. string.format(“(%d, %d, ‘%s’, ‘%s’)”,i, sb_rand(1, oltp_table_size) , c_val, pad_val))

end — oltp_read_only

db_query(commit_query)

end

ベンチマーク結果

かなり傾向の違うグラフになっていますが、並列度が増大した際には比較的優位な結果が出ています。

TPS # read only

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: TPS # read only

Thread FusionIO-MySQL-5.6.17 Amazon RDS-MySQL-5.6.17
1 226.95 23.59
2 432.07 42.68
4 843.74 71.26
8 1639.6 162.16
16 2803.5 312.07
32 4009.1 566.66
64 3497.2 641.28
128 3545.2 607.47
256 3309.8 482.38

TPS # read/write

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: TPS # read/write

Thread FusionIO-MySQL-5.6.17 Amazon RDS-MySQL-5.6.17
1 127.85 15.52
2 247.43 38.82
4 475.39 66.02
8 727.45 116.92
16 793.82 272.29
32 734.82 478.45
64 685.91 622.67
128 671.45 615.35
256 636.12 609.32

avg read only

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: avg read only

Thread FusionIO-MySQL-5.6.17 Amazon RDS-MySQL-5.6.17
1 42.39 4.4
2 46.86 4.63
4 56.13 4.74
8 49.33 4.88
16 51.26 5.7
32 56.46 7.98
64 99.78 18.3
128 210.63 36.1
256 530.32 77.33

avg read/write

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: avg read/write

Thread FusionIO-MySQL-5.6.17 Amazon RDS-MySQL-5.6.17
1 64.42 7.82
2 51.51 8.08
4 60.58 8.41
8 68.42 10.99
16 58.75 20.15
32 66.87 43.54
64 102.77 93.3
128 207.97 190.62
256 420 401.67

99 read only

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: 99 read only

Thread FusionIO-MySQL-5.6.17 Amazon RDS-MySQL-5.6.17
1 44.51 4.64
2 53.26 4.9
4 72.1 5.07
8 71.37 5.33
16 73.6 7.13
32 79.58 12.15
64 129.79 30.56
128 276.54 60.1
256 777.19 144.17

99 read/write

ベンチマーク検証結果 DirectConnect経由のFusion-io vs Amazon RDS: 99 read/write

Thread FusionIO-MySQL-5.6.17 Amazon RDS-MySQL-5.6.17
1 9.35 67.38
2 10.94 55.04
4 12.46 88.03
8 26.02 89.09
16 420.75 88.22
32 684.96 93.35
64 1069.3 131.04
128 1672.9 237.82
256 3091 461.53

元記事はこちらです。
Direct connect経由なFusion-IOとRDSはどっちが速いのかを繋いで、ベンチマークしてみた。

廣瀬 一海

廣瀬 一海